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Trafic Rules and Informations

Welcome to Indian Driving Rules

Drunken Driving
Alcohol has been successful in making a distinct niche in daily lives of humans since the centuries of the recorded history. Alcohol has been found to play a major role in social ills in almost all countries across the world, but foremost amongst the ills produced by alcohol is its role in traffic crashes.
Drink Driving

Alcohol and driving don't mix, but still, many people love to drink and drive resulting in numerous road mishaps. Drunken driving has been recognized as a world menace, based on the stats which reveal that road accidents cause 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries around the world each year. Some 480,000 of these deaths and 20 million of people get injured by drunken driving.

Traffic Offences and Penalties in India
The Indian Road rules, titled "Rules of the Road Regulation", were brought into effect since July, 1989. These rules are germane to the Indian drivers (all inclusive of two, three and four wheelers), while on the road to ensure an orderly traffic and a safer journey. Violation of these "Rules of Road Regulation" is a punishable transgression as per the city specific traffic police rules and the "Motor Vehicle Act".

Enforcement of these traffic laws - rules, regulations and acts can bear out the road accidents. These laws are enforced by issuing challans in the name of the offenders and teaching them a lesson by making them pay penalties. An indicative list of the possible offences and their respective penalties is formulated below:

The role of Alcohol in traffic safety has produced more controversies than any other topic. After drinking, the judgment power of the driver gets impaired - a threat to road safety. Due to its effects, driver tends to take more risks, becomes more aggressive and takes a longer reaction time. It has been well established that the relative probability of causing crash increases with the rising blood alcohol levels keeping road safety at stake.

In India, drunken driving is customary in commercial vehicle drivers. Private car owners and youngsters are also major players in the game. Small bars along the Indian highways are of prime concern to control drunken driving. To make the matter worse the gamble of destiny is that Indian traffic officials are not well equipped with the necessary equipments required to introduce checks on driving in India. India has laws to check the drunken driving but its effective implementation is still to be worked upon.

The MV Act, 1939, has a clause which states that "Driving by a drunken person shall be punishable at the first offence with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with a fine which may extend to two thousand rupees or both; and for a second offence, if committed within three years of the previous similar offence, imprisonment for a term which may extend to three thousand rupees, or with both.

According to this law, drinking and driving was not allowed to be mixed up, but after its amendment in 1994, an amount up to 30 mg per 100 ml of blood has been permitted to driver. The above law is very much effective if imposed, but it slips off when the hands of the concerned officials are greased.

A drunken driver is a potential murderer as he cannot perform his tasks without risks and endangers road safety. Drunken driving an illegal act should be governed by stern laws which entail not only levying hefty fines or revocation of license, but also prosecution, same as a criminal offense. Usually, driver escape from the scene as the public gets involved in getting the injured hospitalized rather than snitch the drunken driver and teaching him a lesson.

But, contrary to the practice, if we make a commitment to report the incidence to the officials concerned and take a stand against drunk driving, then we may get successful in curbing the menace which has been since centuries a major contributor to the traffic deaths in every, but, the co-relation between alcohol and road safety still remains a matter of more research.

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1. OFFENCES RELATED TO DOCUMENTS

1.1 -Offence:- Driving without a Valid License
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 500/- and /or imprisonment ( 3 months)
Section : 3 r/w 181 MVA

1.2 -Offence:- Allowing vehicle to be driven by a person who does not possess a Valid License.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 1000/- and/or imprisonment ( 3 months)
Section : 5 r/w 180 MVA

1.3 -Offence:- Not carrying documents as required.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 130(3) r/w 177 MVA

1.4 -Offence:- Driving without Valid Insurance.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 1000/- and/or imprisonment ( 3 months)
Section : 130 r/w 177 MVA

1.5 -Offence:- Driving without Valid Permit.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 5000/- ( not less than Rs. 2000/-)
Section : 130 r/w 177 MVA

1.6 -Offence:- Driving without Valid Fitness.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 5000/- ( not less than Rs. 2000/-)
Section : 130 r/w 177 MVA

1.7 -Offence:- Vehicle without R.C.
Maximum Penalty :Rs 2000/-
Section : 39 r/w192 MVA

2. OFFENCES RELATED TO DRIVING

2.1.1 -Offence: Driving by Minor .
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 500/-
Section : 4 r/w 181 MVA

2.1.2 -Offence: Allowing Unauthorized person to drive .
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 1000/-
Section : 5 r/w 180 MVA

2.1.3 -Offence: Driving without Helmet.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 129 r/w177 MVA

2.1.4 -Offence: Seat Belts not fastened.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
138(3) CMVR 177 MVA

2.1.5 -Offence: Rough/Rash/Negligent Driving .
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 1000/-
Section : 184 MVA

2.1.6 -Offence: Dangerous or hasty Driving.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.1000/- and/or imprisonment( 6 months)
Section : 112-183 MVA

2.1.7 -Offence: Not Driving in Proper Lane.
Maximum Penalty :Court Challan
Section : 66 r/w 192 MVA

2.1.8 -Offence: Driving in the center and not to left side.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 2 RRR r/w 177 MVA

2.1.9 -Offence: Driving against One Way.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 17 (i) RRR
177 MVA

2.1.10 -Offence: Reversing without due care and attention.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : MMVR 233
177 MVA

2.1.11 -Offence: Taking “U” turn during outlawed hours.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 12 RRR
177 MVA

2.1.12 -Offence: Failing to take precaution while taking a “Turn”.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 3 RRR
177 MVA

2.1.13 -Offence: Failing to decelerate at intersection.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 8 RRR
177 MVA

2.1.14 -Offence: Failing to carry on left of traffic island.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 2 RRR
177 MVA

2.1.15 -Offence: Carrying persons on Footboard.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 123-177 MVA

2.1.16 -Offence: Carrying persons causing hindrance to the driver.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 125-177 MVA

2.1.17 -Offence: Trippling.
Maximum Penalty :Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 128/177 MVA

2.1.18 -Offence: Driving on Footpath.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : RRR 177 MVA

2.1.19 -Offence: Stopping at pedestrian crossing or crossing a Stop Line.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
RRR 177 MVA

2.2
Road Marking Related Offences
2.2.1 -Offence: Violation of Yellow Line.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 119/177 MVA

2.2.2 -Offence: Violation of Stop Line.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 113(1)/177 DMVR

2.2.3 -Offence: Violation of Mandatory Signs .
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 119/177 MVA

2.3
Number Plate Related Offences
2.3.1 -Offence: Use of Offensive Number Plate for vehicle used in driving.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : CMVR 105 (2) (ii) 177 MVA

2.3.2 -Offence: Displaying 'Applied For'.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 4500/-
39/192 MVA

2.4
Vehicle Light Related Offences
2.4.1 -Offence: Improper use of headlights/tail light for vehicle used in driving.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : CMVR 105 (2) (ii) 177 MVA

2.4.2 -Offence: Using High Beam where not required.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 112(G) A DMVR 177 MVA

2.5
Horn Related Offences
2.5.1 -Offence: Driving without Horn.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 119(1)/177 CMVR

2.5.2 -Offence: Improper horn usage while driving.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
CMVR 105 (2) (ii)
Section : 177 MVA

2.6
Traffic Police Related Offences
2.6.1 -Offence: Disobeying Traffic Police Officer in uniform.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 119 MVA
22(a) RRR
177 MVA

2.6.2 -Offence: Driving against Police Signal.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
119 r/w 177 MVA

2.6.3 -Offence: Disobeying manual Traffic Signal.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 239 MMVR
22(a) RRR
177 MVA

2.7
Traffic Signal Related Offences
2.7.1 -Offence: Disobeying Traffic signal / Sign Board.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 22(b) RRR
239 MMVR
177 MVA

2.7.2 -Offence: Failing to give Signal.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 121 RRR
177 MVA

2.7.3 -Offence: Jumping Signal.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 119/177 MVA

2.8
Speed and Overtake Related Offences
2.8.1 -Offence: Exceeding the prescribed Speed Limits.
Maximum Penalty :Up to Rs.1000/-
Section : 112-183 MVA

2.8.2 -Offence: Abetment for Over Speeding .
Maximum Penalty :Rs.300/-
Section : 112/183(2) MVA

2.8.3 -Offence: Overtaking perilously.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
6 (a) RRR r/w 177 MVA

2.8.4 -Offence: Failing to confer way to sanction Overtaking.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 7 RRR
177 MVA

2.8.5 -Offence: Overtaking from Wrong Side .
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : RRR 6/1/177 MVA

2.9
Other Offences
2.9.1 -Offence: Disobeying Lawful Directions.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 500/-
Section : 132/179 MVA

2.9.2 -Offence: Driving under influence of Alcohol / Drugs.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.2000/-
and/or imprisonment( 6 months)
Section : 185 MVA

2.9.3 -Offence: Using Mobile Phone while Driving.
Maximum Penalty :Up to 1000/-
Section : 184 MVA

2.9.4 Leaving vehicle in unoccupied engine.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 126-177 MVA

2.9.5 -Offence: Leaving vehicle in unsafe position.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 122 177 MVA

2.9.6 -Offence: In case of a minor Accident.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 1000/-
Section : 184 MVA

2.9.7 -Offence: Playing music while Driving.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 102/177 MVA

2.9.8 -Offence: Driving without Silencer.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 120/190(2)/177CMVR

2.9.9 -Offence: Driving when mentally or physically unfit.
Maximum Penalty :Court Challan
Section : 186 MVA

3. OFFENCES RELATED TO TOWING OF VEHICLES

3.1 Two Wheeler.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : RRR 177 MVA

3.2 Car , Jeep, Taxi, Auto Rickshaw.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.200/-
Section : RRR 177 MVA

3.3 Truck, Tanker, Trailor.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.600/-
Section : RRR 177 MVA

4. OFFENCES RELATED TO POLLUTION

4.1 -Offence: Smoking in Public Transport.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 86(1)(5)/177 DMVR

4.2 -Offence: Pollution Not Under Control.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 99(1)(a)/177 DMVR

4.3 -Offence: Fixing multi-toned/shrill horn.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.500/-
Section : 119 CMVR
190(2) MVA

4.4 -Offence: Blowing Pressure Horn.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
96(1)/177 DMVR

4.5 -Offence: Silencer/muffler making noise.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.500/-
Section : CMVR 120
190(2) MVA

4.6 -Offence: Smoky Exhaust.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.500/-
Section : 115 CMVR
190(2) MVA

4.7 -Offence: Using horn in Silence Zone.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 21(ii) RRR
177 MVA

5. OFFENCES RELATED TO MOTOR VEHICLES

5.1 -Offence: Using Vehicle in Unsafe Conditions.
Maximum Penalty :Court Challan
Section : 192 MVA

5.2 -Offence: When motor vehicle is out of state for more than 12 months.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 47-177 MVA

5.3 -Offence: Particulars to be printed on transport vehicles.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
84(G)-177 MVA

5.4 -Offence: Without Wiper
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : CMVR 101
5,12 177 MVA

5.4 -Offence: Without Side Mirror.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 5, 7/177 MVA

5.5 -Offence: Defective tyres.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : CMVR 94

5.6 -Offence: No indication board on left hand drive vehicle.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 120, 177 MVA

5.7 -Offence: Sale of motor vehicle/alteration of motor vehicle in contravention of Act.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.300/-
52/191 MVA, 32/192.66/192 MV Act

5.8 -Offence: Vehicles fitted with dark glasses/sun films.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 100 CMVR
177 MVA

5.9 -Offence: Driving without proper number plate/ illuminating rear number plate.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 236 MMVR
177 MVA

5.10 -Offence: Failing to display public carrier board.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 116 MMVR
177 MVA

5.11 -Offence: Using private vehicle for commercial purposes.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 5000/-
( not less than Rs. 2000/-)

5.12 -Offence: Any sort of misconduct with passengers, not wearing uniform/not displaying badge.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : MMVR 21(18)
177 MVA

5.13 -Offence: Overloading a goods vehicle.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.2000/-plus Rs. 1000/- for every additional ton.
Section : MMVR 93(u)(i)
177 MVA

5.14 -Offence: Carrying goods in a dangerous or hazardous manner.
Maximum Penalty :Imprisonment and/or fine of Rs. 3000/-
Section : 29 RRR
177 MVA

5.15 -Offence: Infringement of permit conditions.
Maximum Penalty :Imprisonment and/or fine of Rs. 5000/-( not less than Rs. 2000/-)

5.16 -Offence: Use of Colored light on Vehicle
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 97(2)/177 DMVR

6. OFFENCES RELATED TO COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

6.1 -Offence: Plying in 'NO ENTRY' Time
Maximum Penalty :Upto 2000/-
Section : 115/194 MVA

6. -Offence: Violation of Time Table
Maximum Penalty :Court Challan
Section : 11/177, 2/177, 66/192 MVA

6.2 -Offence: High and Long / Load in Vehicles
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 29 RRR/177 MVA

6.3 -Offence: Carrying animals in goods vehicles in contravention of rules.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : MMVR 83
177 MVA

6.4 -Offence: Carrying persons dangerously or carrying persons in goods vehicles.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : MMVR 108
177 MVA

6.5 -Offence: Goods in Passenger Vehicles

6.6 -Offence: Dangerous projection of goods.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 229 MMVR
29 RRR
177 MVA

6.7 -Offence: Carrying goods unsecured.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : MMVR 202
177 MVA

6. -Offence: Carrying goods more than 11 feet high.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : MMVR 93(u) (i)
177 MVA

6. -Offence: Limit Of weight and limitation on Use.
Maximum Penalty :Court Challan
Section : 113/194(1) MVA

6. -Offence: Driver refuses to weigh vehicle.
Maximum Penalty :Court Challan
Section : 114/194(2) MVA

6.9 -Offence: Load on Tail Board.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : MMVR 202
177 MVA

6.10 -Offence: Misbehavior by Taxi/TSR Driver.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 11(3)/177 DMVR

6.11 -Offence: Over Charging by Taxi/TSR Driver.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 11(8)/177 DMVR

6.12 -Offence: Charging without Meter.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 11(8)/177 DMVR

6.13 -Offence: Refusal by Taxi/TSR Driver.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 11(9)/177 DMVR

6.14 -Offence: Driver without Uniform.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 7/177 DMVR

6.14 -Offence: Driver without Badge.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 22(1)/177 DMVR

6.15 -Offence: Conductor without Uniform.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 23(1)/177 DMVR

6.16 -Offence: Conductor without Badge.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 22(1)/177 DMVR

6.17 -Offence: Stopping without Bus stop
Maximum Penalty :Court Challan
66/192 MVA

6.18 -Offence: Power to detain Vehicle used in contravention of section 3.4,39 or 66(1) MV Act.
Maximum Penalty :Court Challan
Section : 207(1) MVA

7. OFFENCES RELATED TO PARKING

7.1 -Offence: Parking in the direction of flow of traffic.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
22(a) RRR
177 MVA

7.2 -Offence: Parking away from footpath towards road.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 15(2) RRR
177 MVA

7.3 -Offence: Parking against flow of traffic.
Maximum Penalty :Rs.100/-
Section : 15(2) RRR
177 MVA

7.4 -Offence: Parking causing Obstruction.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(2) RRR
177 MVA

7.5 -Offence: Parking on a Taxi Stand.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(2) RRR
177 MVA

7.6 -Offence: Parking in not any prescribed manner.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(1) RRR
177 MVA

7.7 -Offence: Parking at any Corner.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(i) RRR
177 MVA

7.8 -Offence: Parking within 15 meters on either side of Bus Stop.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(2) RRR
177 MVA

7.9 -Offence: Parking on Bridge.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(2) (i) RRR
177 MVA

7.10 -Offence: Parking at Traffic Island.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(i) RRR
177 MVA

7.11 -Offence: Parking in “No” Parking Area.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(2) RRR
177 MVA

7.12 -Offence: Parked on Pedestrian Crossing.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(2)(iii) RRR
177 MVA

7.13 -Offence: Parking on Footpath.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(2)(ii) RRR
177 MVA

7.14 -Offence: Parking in front of a gate.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(2)(viii) RRR
177 MVA

7.15 -Offence: Parking causing obstruction.
Maximum Penalty :Rs. 100/-
Section : 15(1) RRR
177 MVA

RRR: Rules of Road Regulations 1989
MVA: Motor Vehicles Act 1988
MMVR: Maharasthra Motor Vehicles Rules 1989
CMVR: Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989

Besides these provisions, it is mandatory for every driver driving, to carry the following documents while driving:

1. Valid driving license.
2. Vehicle Registration Certificate.
3. Road Tax Token.
4. Pollution under Control Certificate.
5. Current Insurance Certificate.

Any driver can be held from his driving licence if falls in line with any of the given criteria:
1. Driving is dangerous to the public.
2. Under the age of 18 yrs.
3. Drunk or addicted to dugs.
4. Illegal driving license.
5. Driving a vehicle with a objectionable history.


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Driving License in India
In India the minimum age required for driving is 16 years for motorcycles of 50cc or less and 18 for all the other vehicles.

Few Points to Remember
* According to the Motor Vehicle Act 1988, a valid Driving Licence is necessary to drive any motor vehicle on public roads.
* Driving License is issued by the Regional Transport Office (RTO) of Motor Vehicles Inspector's Office after the recipient has passed a driving test and has proved the required age.
* The Driving License in India is segregated as Motorcycle License, Light Motor Vehicle (LMV) license, and Heavy Motor Vehicle (HMV) License.
* Learner's License is issued after passing a theory test.
* The legislation of Driving License is done through the 'Rules of the Road Regulation' and the Motor Vehicle Act 1988.
* The driver of the vehicle is required to keep the original copy of the license while driving.

Types of Driving Licenses in India
To drive a motor vehicle in any public place an effective Driving License is necessary. By effective Driving License it mean license issued to a person authorizing him/her to drive vehicle of that particular category. There are different types of licenses issued by the RTO offices. Here we will discuss each of them separately.

1. Learner Driving License
This is a temporary license that is valid up to 6 months from the date of issue. It is basically issued to learn driving of Motor Vehicles.

2. Permanent Driving License
Permanent driving license is issued to those who become eligible for it after thirty days (to apply within 180 days) from the date of issue of the learner license. Person suppose to get permanent driving license should be conversant about the vehicle systems, driving, traffic rules & regulations.

3. Duplicate Driving License
In case of loss, theft, or on mutilation, Duplicate License is issued. The documents to be produced are FIR of the lost license, challan clearance report from RTA Office (in case of Commercial licence renewal) and an application in Form LLD. The particulars are verified by the authority from the records. The duplicate license will have the valid period same as the previous license. If the license is lost and expired by more than 6 months it requires permission from Head Quarter of Transport Department.
It is recommended to keep a photocopy of the original license or particulars of license noted in order to make it easier for the issuing authority to locate the particulars from their record.

4. International Driving License
The motor licensing authority also issues International Driving License. The validity of this license is for one year. Person visiting the country is required to collect the license from there within one year period. Apart from address proof and birth certificate, one has to produce a valid passport and valid visa while applying.

5. Motorcyle License or Two-wheeler License
Two-wheeler license is issued by the Regional Transport Authority (RTO) to permit driving of only two-wheeler vehicles like bike, scooter and moped.

6. Light Motor Vehicle License (LMV)
Light Motor Vehicle License is issued to drive light vehicles like auto rickshaws, motor car, jeep, taxi, three-wheeler delivery vans, etc.

7. Heavy Motor Vehicle License (HMV)
Heavy Motor Vehicle License is issued to drive heavy vehicles like trucks, buses, tourist coaches, cranes, goods carriages, etc. A person with HMV license can drive light vehicles but Light Motor Vehicle License do not permit to drive heavy vehicles.

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First Aid in Road Accidents
Many deaths and impact of injuries can be prevented with First Aid if causalities are treated immediately.
First aid is the initial care given to an injured person. Mostly, this timely care prior to the arrival of the medical help means the difference between life and death. It must start immediately when the injury or illness occurs and continue until medical help arrives or the casualty recovers.
The basic aims of first aid are:
1. To save life.
2. To protect the casualty from getting more harm.
3. To reduce pain and Priorities of Casualty Treatment.
Priorities of Casualty Treatment
  • Asphyxia
  • Cardiac Arrest
  • Severe Haemorrhage (Bleeding)
  • Other Injuries/Illnesses
  • Shock
    IMMEDIATE REQUIREMENT:
    Critical four minutes: One of the most common causes of a road accident death is due to loss of oxygen supply. This is mostly caused by a blocked airway. Normally it takes less than four minutes for a blocked airway to cause death.
    The ‘golden hour’: The first hour after the trauma is called the ‘golden hour’. If proper first aid is given, road accident victims has a greater chance of survival and a reduction in the severity of their injuries.


    Drive on Which side of the Road? Perplexed!!
    Do you know that your brain is divided into two parts: Right and Left? In Right brain, nothing is left, and in left brain, nothing is right. Jokes apart, and rather Unfortunately, Road Safety isn’t such a petty matter that we can afford to smile every once and then. Have you ever given thought, why United States drives to the right and United Kingdom drives to the left? Why Germany to the right and Jamaica to the left? The article herewith lists the reasons behind the selection of the side to which the traffic belongs in their country.
    It also chronologically lists the countries ordered by which lane of the road they adhere to while driving, Right or Left?

    China:- It was Australian historian M. G. Lay, who traced the first regulation of one-side-or-the-other to the Chinese bureaucracy of 1100 B.C. According to the Book of Rites, it was stated: "The right side of the road is for men, the left side for women and the center for carriages." This Western Zhou dynasty rule applied only to the dynasty's wide official roads and was "more concerned with protocol than avoiding head-on collisions."

    Ancient Rome:- Bryn Walters determined Romans drove on the left.
    Walters found a track into the old Roman quarry at Blunsdon Ridge.
    The track was only used for bringing stone from the quarry to a major Roman temple being built on the nearby ridge (near Swindon in England), and then fell out of use, so it is very well preserved. And since the carts went in empty and came out laden with stone, the ruts on one side of the road are much deeper than they are on the other. The conclusion: Romans drove on the left.

    Middle Ages:- Seven hundred years ago, everybody used the English system. In the Middle Ages you kept to the left for the simple reason that you never knew who you'd meet on the road in those days; you wanted to make sure that a stranger passed on the right so you could go for your sword in case he proved unfriendly.

    Pilgrims:- This custom was given official sanction in 1300 A.D., when Pope Boniface VIII invented the modern science of traffic control by declaring that pilgrims headed to Rome should keep left.
    Travel Library disputes this, saying that Kincaid found no records of this decree. Instead, he found evidence that in 1300, Pope Boniface VIII ordered pilgrims on the Bridge of St. Angelo en route to and from St. Peter's Basilica to keep to the right.

    U.S. France:- The papal system prevailed until the late 1700s, when teamsters in the United States and France began hauling farm products in big wagons pulled by several pairs of horses. These wagons had no driver's seat; instead the driver sat on the left rear horse, so he could keep his right arm free to lash the team. Since you were sitting on the left, naturally you wanted everybody to pass on the left so you could look down and make sure you kept clear of the other guy's wheels.

    England:-In small-is-beautiful England, though, they didn't use monster wagons that required the driver to ride a horse; instead the guy sat on a seat mounted on the wagon. What's more, he usually sat on the right side of the seat so the whip wouldn't hang up on the load behind him when he flogged the horses. So the English continued to drive on the left... Keeping left first entered English law in 1756, with the enactment of an ordinance governing traffic on the London Bridge, and ultimately became the rule throughout the British Empire.
    It extended the rule in 1772 to towns in Scotland. The penalty for disobeying the law was 20 shillings (£1).
    According to Amphicars, the UK Government introduced the General Highways Act of 1773, containing a keep left recommendation to regulate horse traffic. This became law as part of the Highways Bill in 1835.

    North America-: The first known keep-right law in the United States was enacted in Pennsylvania in 1792, and in the ensuing years many states and Canadian provinces followed suit. In 1792, Pennsylvania adopted legislation to establish a turnpike from Lancaster to Philadelphia. The charter legislation provided that travel would be on the right hand side of the turnpike. New York, in 1804, became the first State to prescribe right hand travel on all public highways. By the Civil War, right hand travel was followed in every State. Drivers tended to sit on the right so they could ensure their buggy, wagon, or other vehicle didn't run into a roadside ditch.

    France-: In France, before the revolution the aristocracy traveled quickly on the left, forcing the peasantry over to the right. After the revolution aristocrats joined the peasants on the right. A keep right rule was introduced in Paris in 1794. Later Napoleon enforced the keep-right rule in all countries occupied by his armies, and the custom endured long after the empire was destroyed. The revolutionary wars and Napoleon's subsequent conquests spread the new rights to the Low Countries, Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain.

    Europe- Russia:- The states that had resisted Napoleon kept broadly left - Britain, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russia and Portugal. Of these independent states, only Denmark converted to driving on the right (in 1793). This European division, between the left- and right-hand nations remained fixed for more than 100 years, until after the First World War.

    Colonization:- The trend among nations over the years has been toward driving on the right, but Britain has done its best to stave off global homogenization. Its former colony India remains a hotbed of leftist sentiment, as does Indonesia, which was occupied by the British in the early nineteenth century. Then the Dutch influenced Indonesia to go left before the British. Thanks to the Brits, Australasia and Africa also go left, with the exception of Egypt. Egypt had been conquered by Napoleon before becoming a British dependency, and its traffic goes to the right.

    Japan-: The English minister to Japan achieved the coup of his career in 1839 when he persuaded his hosts to make keep-left the law in the future home of Toyota and Mitsubishi. Sir Rutherford Alcock, who was Queen Victoria's man in the Japanese court, persuaded them to adopt the keep left rule."

    U.S.-: When inventors began building "automobiles" in the 1890's, they thought of them as motorized wagons. As a result, many early cars had the steering mechanism-a rudder (or tiller), not a wheel-in the center position where the side of the road didn't make any difference. Lay points out that technical innovation created the configuration we are familiar with in the United States:
    "However, with the introduction of the steering wheel in 1898, a central location was no longer technically possible. Car makers usually copied existing practice and placed the driver on the curbside. Thus, most American cars produced before 1910 were made with right-side driver seating, although intended for right-side driving. Such vehicles remained in common use until 1915, and the 1908 Model T was the first of Ford's cars to feature a left-side driving position."
    By 1915, the Model T had become so popular that the rest of the automakers followed Ford's lead.

    Russia-: Russia switched to driving on the right in the last days of the Tsars.

    Portugal-: Portugal changed to the right in the 1920s.

    Austro-Hungarian Empire-: The break up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire caused no change; Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Hungary continued to drive on the left.
    Austria itself was something of a curiosity. Half the country drove on the left and half on the right. The dividing line was precisely the area affected by Napoleon's conquests in 1805. Napoleon gave the Tyrol, the Western province of Austria, to Bavaria. It continued to keep to the right, although the bulk of Austrians drove on the left.

    Japan-: In 1924, Japan passed a left-side driving law.

    Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, After 1938-9-: Nonetheless, the power of the right has been growing steadily. When Germany annexed Austria in 1938, it brutally suppressed the latter's keep-left rights, and much the same happened in Czechoslovakia in 1939.
    On 12 March 1938 Hitler invaded Austria, and the next day proclaimed Anschluss, the absorption of Austria into Germany. He ordered that the traffic should change from the left to the right side of the road, overnight. The change threw the driving public into turmoil, because motorists were unable to see most road signs. In Vienna it proved impossible to change the trams overnight, so while all other traffic took to the right hand side of the road, the trams continued to run on the left for several weeks. Czechoslovakia and Hungary, the last two states on the mainland of Europe to keep left, changed to the right after being invaded by Germany in 1939.

    Okinawa-: During U.S. occupation, Okinawa, Japan drove on the right side. Okinawa changed back to left side when it was returned to Japan.

    China-: China changed to the right in 1946.

    Korea-: Korea now drives right, but only because it passed directly from Japanese colonial rule to American (and Russian) influence at the end of the Second World War.

    Pakistan-:Pakistan also considered changing to the right in the 1960's. The main argument against the shift was that camel trains often drove through the night while their drivers dozed. The difficulty in teaching old camels new tricks was decisive in forcing Pakistan to reject the change.

    Canada-: "Since 1 December 1922 there had been a problem for automobile drivers who crossed the border between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick - on that date New Brunswick had switched to driving on the right-hand side of the road, while Nova Scotia remained with the left-side rule. For four and a half months, drivers crossing the border in both directions had to remember to change to the other side of the road, and even with the relatively low traffic levels of that day there were some near- misses resulting from this conflict."
    The switch had an interesting effect on the beef industry: "In Lunenburg County, 1923 is still known as The Year of Free Beef; the price of beef dropped precipitously because oxen which had been trained to keep to the left could not be retrained — oxen are notoriously slow-witted — and many teamsters had to replace their oxen with new ones trained to keep to the right; the displaced oxen were sent to slaughter."

    Sweden-: The last holdouts in mainland Europe, the Swedes, finally switched to the right in 1967 because most of the countries they sold Saabs and Volvos to were rightist and they got tired of having to make different versions for domestic use and export. Acc. To Travel Library, Swedish government felt increasing pressure to change sides to conform to the rest of Europe. Anders Hanquist writes, "The problem with left-hand driving in Sweden was, of course, that all our neighbors already drove on the right side. There are a lot of small roads, without border guards, leading into Norway so you had to remember in which country you were. Another curiosity was that most of the cars running in Sweden were built for right-hand driving. That means that the steering wheel was on the left side. Even cars imported from Britain were built that way.' Perhaps not causal, but along with the road change, Sweden began large scale road safety work. For example, instead of unrestricted highways, speed limits were imposed.

    New York Pedestrians-: The discussion thread at MG Cars Enthusiasts stated "There is also an old tradition where the gentleman walks on the kerbside of the lady, whilst this is pretty much defunct these days, it's origins date back to these times where a gentleman was supposed to be chivalrous and protect his lady. And here we are back at the beginning again, with a gentleman walking on the left, his lady to his left and his sword arm presented to any oncoming foes.”

    Indonesia-: The current battleground is the island of Timor. The Indonesians, who own west Timor, have been whiling away the hours exterminating the native culture of the east Timorese. The issue? Some say it's religion, some say it's language, but I know the truth: in east Timor as well as in west Timor they drive on the left.

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  • 3 comments:

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