Ind disable


Kannur is a land with a resonantpast. Myths and legends abound. The ships of Solomon, they say anchored along our coasts to collect timber for building the ‘Temple of the Lord’. Kannur finds mention as NAURA in the ‘Periplus of the Erithrean Sea’ a Greek work of great antiquity.

Kannur is a major railway station on Shornur - Mangalore line. By road Kannur is 155 KMs south of Mangalore and 535 KMs north of Thiruvananthapuram. The nearest Airport is at Calicut which is 110 KMs south and Mangalore Airport is 170KMs north.

Kannur district derived its name from location of its headquarters at Kannur town. The old name Cannanore is the anglicized form of Malayalam word Kannur. According to one opinion, 'Kannur' is a derivation of Kanathur, an ancient village, the name of which survives even today in one of the wards of Kannur municipality. Another version is that Kannur might have assumed its name from one of the deities of the Hindu pantheon, a compound of two words, Kannan (Lord Krishna) and Ur (Place) making it the place of Lord Krishna. In this context, it is well worth mentioning that the deity of Kadalayi Sri Krishna temple was originally installed in a shrine at Kadalayikkota in south eastern part of present Kannur town.

Kannur district derived its name from the location of its headquarters at Kannur town.The old name 'Cannanore' is the anglicised form of the Malayalam word Kannur. According to one opinion, 'Kannur' is a derivation from Kanathur, an ancient village, the name of which survives even today in one of the wards of Kannur Municipality.

Anotherversion is that Kannur might have assumed its name from one of the , deities of the Hindu pantheon, a compound of two words, Kannan (Lord Krishna) and Ur (place)making it the placeof Lord Krishna. In this context, it is worth mentioning that the deity of the Katalayi Sreekrishna temple was originally installed in a shrine at Katalayi Kotta in the south eastern part of the present Kannur town.


  • History

  • There is no evidence of the Paleolithic man having lived in this region. Nevertheless, rock-cut caves and megalithic burial sites of the Neolithic age have come to light in certain parts of the district. The Thaliparamba-Kannur- Thalassery area abounds in rock-cut caves, dolments, burial stone circles and menhirs, all of megalithic burial order. It can be assumed that the first batch of Aryan immigrants into the State entered the district through the Tuluva region.

    Mooshaka Kings and Kolathiris
    Early in the 9th century A.D., the Cheras re-established their political supremacy in Kerala under Kulasekhara Varman. This second line of Chera emperors ruled till 1102 A.D with their capital at Mahodayapuram. The bulk of the area, comprising of the present Kannurdistrict, seems to have been included in this empire. A separate line of rulers known as the Mooshaka kings held sway over Chirakkal and Kasaragod areas (Kolathunad) with their capital near Mount Eli. It is not clear whether this line of rulers were attached to Mahodayapura fi or whether they ruled as an independant line of kings in their own right. By the 14th century A.D., the old Mooshaka kingdom had come to be knownas Kolathunad and the rulers known as Kolathiris and had come into prominence in north Kerala.

    The Kolathiris were a power to reckon with at the time of the arrival of the portuguese towards the end of the 15th century .They were political and commercial rivals of the Zamorins of Kozhikkode.

    During the medieval age, several Arab scholars visited the west coast. Baliapatam, Srikantapuram, Dhharrnadom, Bekal and Mount Eli (Ezhimala) are s ome of the places. which figure prominently in their travelogues.

    Vasco Da Gama
    Though Vasco Da Gamma, the famous portuguese navigator, did not visit Kannur on his way to Kozhikkode in May 1498, he established contacts with the Kolathiri ruler. His ships which had left Kozhikkode on August 29, 1498 were contacted by the boats sent by the Kolathiri and Gama was invited to visit the palace. The aim of the Kolathiri was to gain wealth and power with the help of the Portuguese, the same way the Zamorin had acquired with the help of the Arabs. In winning the alliance of the Kolathiri, Vasco Da Gamma, in turn, had successfully exploited the jealousies of the native princes and won for the Portuguese ;a virtual monopoly of the pepper trade.

    Francisco De Almedia was sent from Portugal with specific instructions to erect forts at stratetgic points. He started constructing the Kannur Fort in 1505 and it was named St. Angelo.

    On March 16, 1506, the Portuguese effectively intercepted an armada of Turks and Arabs, whom the Zamorin had launched against Kannur. The Portuguese navy under Lorenzo Almedia engaged the Zamorin's fleet in battle and the Portuguese ships won a decisive victory . This naval victory resulted in the establishment of Portuguese naval supremacy in the Indian seas.

    Portuguese Ascendency
    An important political development which took place at this juncture was the alliance between the Kolathiri and the Zamorin who were till then sworn enemies. The Zamorin was able to convince the Kolathiri of the real motives of the Portuguese in India and the perils inherent in his policy of befriending them.

    The Portuguese followed a policy of religious persecution and forcible conversion. They therefore clashed with most of the native princes and chieftains. In 1558, the Kolathiri came openly into the field against the Portuguese by providing active support to the Kunjali Marrikkars of Kozhikkode. The Kolathiri and the Zamorin fought a common war against the Portuguese and they besieged the fort of St.Angelo at Kannur, in 1564. But the portuguese continued to maintain a precarious foothold at Kannur till 1663 when the fort was captured by the Dutch in February that year .

    Arrival of the English East India company
    The English East lndia Company got its first foothold in the district towards the closing years of the 17th century , when it acquired a site at Thalassery for the erection of a fort and a factory .

    The distemgration of the Kolathiri’s dominion started in the latter half of the 17th and the beginnng of the 18th century following dissensions in the royal family by the extensive surrender of territory to consorts of the ruling members.

    In spite of the many difflculties it had to face in the initial stages, the trade of the English East India Company prospered during the latter part of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century, by their liberal trade policies. Further, unlike the portuguese, they refused to interfere in the religious and caste affairs of the local population.

    Mysorean Conquest
    In 1725, the French captured Mayyazhi and renamed it as Mahe in honour of the French captain Francois Mahe De Labourdonnais.

    The most important episode in the political history of north Kerala in the second half of the 18th century is the conquest of Mysore by the two muslim rulers, Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan. Haidar Ali conquered Malabar in 1773.

    In January 1788, Tippu Sultan descended on Kerala with a large army and founded a new capital at Feroke for his Malabar province.

    The treaties of Seringapatanam, signed on February 22 and March 18, 1792, formally ceded Malabar to the British.

    The British entered into agreements with the rajas of Chirakkal, ~ ; Kottayam and Kadathanand and all of them acknowledged the full I sovereignty of the Company over their respective territories.

    The British Government divided the province of Malabar into two administrative divisions -the Northern and Southern, presided over by a superintendent each at Thalassery and Cherpulasseri, under the general control of the supervisor and chief magistrate of the province of Malabar who had his headquarters at Kozhikkode.

    Freedom Movement
    Kannur District has played an emportent rol in all the political movements of recent times. The Indian National Congress, which was founded in 1885, captured the attention of the people of this district from Kannur district has played an important role in all the political movements its very inception. A district committee came into existence in Malabar in 1908. A branch of the All India Home Rule League, founded by Dr.Annie Beasant, functioned in Thalassery during this period and among its active workers was V .K. Krishna Menon.

    The decision of the Nag pur Congress to give up constitutional methods of agitation and resort to Non- Violent Non Co-operation as a means of achieving Swaraj, led to widespread boycott of foreign goods, courts of law and educational institutions in Kannur .

    Mahatma Ghandhi and Maulana Shaukat Ali toured the district to carry the message of the Non-Co-operation and Khilaphat Movements. The Khilaphat movement coincided with the famous Malabar Rebellion of 1921 which was put down by the British with an iron hand.


  • Tourist Places

  • The tourism potential for Kannur district is high. The St. Angelos Fort in the Kannur Cantonment, which was constructed in 1505, is a symbol of Portuguese architecture and attracts plenty of tourists. The Thalassery Fort is an important tourist centre. Kannur beach and Ezhimala are known for scenic beauty. Places of historic importance, like the house of
    Gulldert, who composed the first Malayalm- English Dictionary and the mosque at Madayi
    constructed in 1124, using marble brought from Mecca attract many tourists.

    Fort St. Angelos
    Fort St. Angelos is in the west of Kannur town. It was built in 1505 by the first Portuguese Viceroy, Don Francisco De Almeida, with the permission of the Kolathiris, on a promontory jutting into the Lakshadweep sea. The Dutch captured the fort in 1663 and sold it to the Ali Raja of Kannur in 1772 and in 1790 it came into the possession of the British. The British rebuilt it and made it their most important station in Malabar . This fort is in a fairly good state of preservation, though parts of it have collapsed. A few obsolete guns areseeh at the place. The fort is a protected monument under the Archaeological Survey of India.

    Thalassery Fort
    The British arrived in Thalassery in 1683 and errected a goods shed there. They shifted their ommercial capital to Thalassery from Kozhikkode, following obstruction from the Dutch. In 1700, the British built the Thalassery Fort on a small hill called Tiruvellapadkunnu and in 1708, it was strengthened by increasing its height and with bastions. The fort is square structure built of laterite and is distinguished by its massiv ventilated walls and strong flanking bastions. It was here that Raider' captain was imprisoned.The famous St. John's Anglican church is behind this fort.

    Muzhappilangad Beach
    (15.K.M from Kannur and 8 K.M from Thalasseri)
    Black rocks protect this long ,clean beach from the currents of the deep, making it shallows waters a swimmer's paradise.Perhaps this is Keralas only drive- in beach. Where you can drive entire length of 4 K.m .

    Payyambalam Beach Resort
    The Payyambalam beach is one of the beautiful beaches in this State and is an ideal place to spend evenings, irrespepcti ve of seasons. It is very near Kannur town. ,The mortal remains or' Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pilla, A.K. Gopalan, K.P. Gopalan, Pamban Madhavan and K.G. Marar are laid to rest near this resort.

    Ezhimala, the capital of the ancient Mooshika kings, is considered to be an ancient historical site. It is a onspicuous,isolated cluster of hills, forming a promontory, 38 kms. north of Kannur.

    A flouriIshing sea port and centre of trade in ancient Kerala, it was one of the major battle fields of the Chola-Chera war of the II th century .I It is believed that Lord Budha had visited Ezhimala. An old mosque, believed to contain the mortal remains of Shaikh Abdul Latif, a Muslim retormlst, is also located here. The hill is noted for rare medicinal herbs. Bordered by sea on three sides, Ezhimala is set to occupy a prominent place in the naval history of the country, consequent to the proposal for ommissioning the N.aval Academy here.

    (29 K.M from Kannur) : This renowned centre for arts and culture at New Mahe conduct courses in painting, sclpture,music, dance and pottery.

    Pazhassi Dam
    (37K.M. east of kannur ) : An ideal retreat for rourists ,the damsite is famous for its scenic beauty. The D.T.P.C provides pleasure boating faciliaties at the reservoir. Accommodation is available at the Project Inspection Bungalow and its dormitories.

    Pythal Mala
    ( 65 km from Kannur Town ): This enchanting hill station ,situated 4,500 ft. above sea level near the Kerala - Karnataka border ,is rich in flora and fauna. It is a 6 km trek to the top of the hills.

    Gundert Bungalow
    (20.K.M.from Kannur, near Thalasseri twon on the national high way at Illikunnu):Dr; Herman Gundert ,the revered German Missionary, scholar,lexicographer lived in this bungalow for 20 years from 1839.It was here that one of the first malayalam dictionaries and the first malayalam newspaper Rajyasamacharam took shape.

    Snake Park at Parassinikkadavu
    The Snake Park at Parassinikkadavu is situated 18 kms. Away from Kannur town. It Is one of the known snake parks in the country . The park is dedicated to the preservation and conservation of snakes, most of which are becoming extinct gradually. There is a large collection of poisonous and non-poisonous snakes.

    Maappila Bay
    Moppila Bay is a natural fishing harbour, lying near Fort St. Angelos. A sea wall projecting from the fort separates the rough sea and inland water. The bay was famous during the Kolathiris' regime as a commercial harbour that linked Kolathunadu with Lakshadweep and foreign countriea, in imports. Today , Mopilla bay has turned into a modernised fishing harbour, developed under the Indo-Norwegian Pact.

  • General Information

  • Kannur district lies between latitudes 11° 40' to 12° 48' North and longitudes 74° 52' to 76° 07' East. The district is bound by the Western Ghats in the East (Coorg district of Karnataka State), Kozhikkode and Wayanad districts, in the South, Lakshadeep sea in the West and Kasaragod, the northern most district of Kerala, in the North.The district can be divided into three geographical regions - highlands, midlands and lowlands.The highland region comprises mainly of mountains. This is the area of major plantations like coffee, rubber, tea, cardamom and other spices. Timber trees like teak, veetty, etc are grown in plenty in this region.The midland region, lying between the mountains and the low lands, is made up ofundulating hills and valleys. This is an area of intense agricultural activity.The lowland is comparatively narrow and comprises of rivers, deltas and seashore. This is a region of coconut and paddy cultivation.

    The district has a humid climate with an oppressive hot season from March to the end of May. This is followed by the South-West monsoon which, continues till the end of September. October and November formflthe post-monsoon or retreating monsoon season. The North East monsoon which follows, extends upto the end of February, although the rain generally ceases after December.During the months of April and May, the mean daily maximum temperature is about 35° celsius. Temperature is low in December and January -about 200 celsius. On certain days the night temperature may go down to 16° celsius.The annual average rainfall is 3438 mm and more than 80 percent of it occurs during the period of South -West monsoon. The rainfall during July is very heavy and the district receives 68 per cent of the annual rainfall during this season.

    Kannur district is very rich in vegetation. Natural vegetation, I except in some coasta1.regions, consists of different types offorests. But, I' in spite of generally favourable climatic conditions, vegetation is not , j uniform. In restricted regions, with their own micro climate or special , ( I' edaphic features, plant formations assume different characters. Thus, I plant communities, ranging from psammophytes and mangroves to r evergreen forests are seen in this district The coastal region is a comparatively narrow zone, characterised by secondary soil which is rather loose and sandy. The serile sandy tract supports only a poor vegetation of the psammophyte type. Plants are few and mostly prostrate. Erect species are small and short. Owing to very poor water holding capacity of the soil, these plants are provided with special xerophytic adaptations. Another conspicuous feature of this area is the mangrove vegetation, found at the estuaries of rivers and backwaters, and often extending to the interior along their banks. Human interference has much changed the vegetation of the coastal region. Major part of the district comes under midland region with numerous hills and dales and it presents an undulating surface gradually ascending and merging into the slopes of Western Ghats. Soil is secondary and lateritic with underlying rock of laterite or disintegrated greiss. T.epical flora of this area is a most deciduous forest consisting of a mixture of evergreen and deciduous trees. Undergrowth consists of a variety of annuals and perennials. The mountains are a continuation of the midland region, gradually ascending to the main ridge of the Western Ghats. Soil in the western slopes is a ferrugenous red, sandy loam. Vegetation over the whole area is of the forest type. Irregular distribution of teak, localised areas of bamboo dominanace, change of good quality forest into open grass lands, etc are characteristic.

    The geological formations in the district are of Archean and recent age. Archean formations comprise of greisses and charrockiates. ! Recent formations are alluvium and laterite. Archeans occupy the midland and highland regions of the district having rock types of basic charrockiates and hornblende-biotite greiss. The remaining portions in the coastal area are covered by laterite, alluvium, lime-sheUs, lignified woods, etc. Archean formations like foliated horn-blende-biotite greiss (gray or white in colour) is one of the main rock types in the northern portion of the district. Recent formations like laterite is developed on a limited scale along the coastal areas.


  • Distance From Other Places By Road

  • Mangalore To Kannur ................ 155kms
    Kozhikode To Kannur ................ 92kms
    Mysore To Kannur ................... 185kms
    Cochin To Kannur ................... 310kms
    Bangalore To Kannur ................ 324kms
    Thiruvananthapuram To Kannur ....... 535kms
    Mumbai To Kannur .................. 1215kms

  • Impotent Phone Numbers

  • ASST. COMMISSIONER .............. 0497-2706695 0484-2204019
    KANNUR I RANGE .................. 0497-2707974 0497-2741029
    KANNUR II RANGE ................. 0497-2707974 0497-2704477
    KANNUR III RANGE ................ 0497-2707974 0497-2705939
    BALIAPATTOM RANGE ............... 0497-2707974 0497-2708380
    WIP RANGE ....................... 0497-2707972 0497-2708380
    TELLICHERRY RANGE ............... 0490-2321398 0495-2390925
    KANHANGAD RANGE ................. 0499-2704775 0481-2596307
    TALIPARAMBA RANGE ............... 0490-2203044 0497-2787027
    MANJESWAR RANGE ................. 0499-2872003 0497-2835699
    KASARGOD RANGE .................. 0499-2430948 0496-2522801
    District Collector &
    District Magistrate ............. 04972700243
    Dy. Collector (General) &
    Addl. Dist. Magistrate .......... 04972700577
    Finance Officer ................. 04972700592
    Revenue Divisional Officer ...... 04902343500
    Deputy Collector(RR) ............ 04972700645
    Deputy Collector(LR) ............ 04972700225
    Deputy Collector(LA) ............ 04972700225
    Deputy Collector(Election) ...... 04972709140
    Tehsildar, Thaliparamba Taluk ... 04602203142
    Tehsildar, Kannur Taluk ......... 04972704969
    Tehsildar, Thalassery Taluk ..... 04902343813
    Railway Station ................. 04972701160 04972705555
    Railway Station Payyannur ....... 04985203078
    Railway Station Thalassery ...... 04902322250
    KSRTC Kannur .................... 04972705960
    KSRTC Payyannur ................. 04985203062



    1. good...try to collect information about other places .

    2. important phone നബേഴ്സല്ലേ ?

    3. where's the ARALAM WILD LIFE SANCTURY ???????????

      TRY FOR IT



      1. There are some popular beliefs in kerala .even historians are not free from these prejudices .one such prejudice is nairs were the sole warriors or soilders in kerala during the earlier period.can it be true by any means.actually answer is european person who were in kerala during the middle of 1700s wrote that ,there were some 15 lakh soilders in kerala.he gives the army strength of each princely states eg 50000 regular army in travancore,another 1lakh using traditional weapons.samudhiri had some 50000 to 75000.kochi had 35000 and palakkad raja had 20000etc.this goes on and on.even that list was not complete.but we know even in the census taken in the last decades of 1800s ,the total savarna population was less than sustain a 15lakh army is not easy.even india in 21st century find it too expensive.and population strength is one main concern.any country can rise a army which will be some 5% to 10% of its youths population.may be the kerala armies were not regular armies.still 15 lakh soilders is not so easy to be formed from a section of the society which forms only a minority of the society.but we shall better look at the records and make an understanding of the actual fact.


    6. During last decade of 19th century ie during 1890's a man called C.V.raman pillai who was living kerala wrote a novel,a historical was one of the first novels in Malayalam.the novels name is marthanda varma-the famous king of travancore who enlarged travancore to a bigger country and made it strong with new revenue administration .he also weakened the feudal system there which was slowly emerged and formed from 14th century.C.V.Raman was very high caste spirited person (as was like many at the time.even now its said that nairs are the most caste spirited persons in kerala ).so he named all the important characters of the novel with surname pillai, some of the characters were real historical figures .they too were christian-ed with pillai surname.this novel was very popular and was taught in schools and colleges(even now) .many thought foolishly that it was the real history.but actually many characters were his creation which he thought needed for a love story.he knew many folk songs and from that he formed his own story.some parts of these songs are including at the start of each chapter.

      Many after reading this novel tried to read the history accordingly ,doing so they corrupted the real all know kerala people is very caste spirited specially the upper castes and christians.the caste organizations of kerala also tried to make profit from this novel.and thus when the real social history surfaces many people find it difficult to believe and accept.


    7. The author C.V.Raman was a learned man .but at his time travancore state government jobs were mainly given to tamil educated malayalees wanted to have jobs in government and they organised and started demanding this need.a memorandum was submitted to king which was signed by thousands demanding appointment of malayalees in administrative jobs of travancore.but it was rejected.later some relaxation was given.many ezhavars awere also signed in that memorandum including Doctor Pulpu ,one of the great reformation personalities of kerala,along with the nairs and others.when government began to accept malayalee youngsters to service,ezhavar and other castes were denied this was like a 100% reservation for the upper class,mainly benefited by aroused a new hate and separation between nairs and ezhavars who were now in obc list and were untouchables at the time. but ezhavars were already organised and actively taking part with the reform movements of sndp .nairs and bhrahmins lagged back and were clinging tight to the old customs.many learned persons from upper class including nairs and bhrahmins were actually part of the reform movements and were working even with sndp .eventually removements started in upper class and new organisations were formed.nairs were so few in many small castes , sects and groups joined together and took the umbrella name nairs and formed the organistion named nair service society(nss).after the formation of nss many sects were included in it.eventhough it was a organization meant for the modernization or civilizisation as explained by its leaders at that time ,it eventually became involved in politics after independance and is the most benefited caste organization in kerala.

      Ananadha padmanabhan is the central or hero of the novel mathanda varma written by C.V.Ramana.this character again appears in another novel by the same author.the marthanda varma novel is also love story between anadha padmanabhn and a nair girl.anantha padmanabhan is a trusted friend and companion of marthanda varma.he is very good in arms and is a good warrior.he saves the king many times from the hands of ettuveetil pillamar.another family is also comes into importance in the novel .it is the mangoikkal family.marthanda varma was saved by that family and in that act the family house was burned down.they helped marthanda varma escape from the enimies and he stays in their family.but the enemies suspecting this attacked the house ,but they were stopped by the paraya (another caste now in scheduled list) soldiers and others of the mankoyikkal family.enemies tried to kill marthanda varma by setting fire to the house but bharathan channan or anantha padmanabhan saves the marthanda the novel ananthapadmanabhan is made nair by making him the son a thirumukkathu pillai.mankoyikkal family is also made nair by using the word kurup and pillai surnames to its family members some of whom also appears in his another novel dharma rajah.

    8. in reality the anantha padmanabhan is a historic figure and belonged to channar community.his house still exists in kanyakumari district which was constructed by him during the period of marthanda varma king.he was the caprtain of the body guard battallion which included 36 warriors who were all channars selected personnaly by marthanda varma.he was a great friend of marthanda varma and served the king as his minister and army commander.actually he helped marthanda varma is securing the support of channar and nadar community to fight against the madampis of travancore who helped the thampis in their claim to thrown.these powerful feudal lords were trying to kill the marthanda varma.anantha padmanabhan died in the year 1953 after the establishment of travancore kingdom.

      the mankoyikkal family also existed and their house too is in kanyakumari district of tamilnadu.kanyakumari was part of the travancore kingdom till 1956.they belonged to channar the channar caste name is not used.the channar caste and nadar caste combined together in 1925 and is now a single caste.they too held high posts in the period of marthanda varma and rama varma.its likely that they were given the title kurup as they trained soldiers.king marthanda varma also formed a title called chempaka raman pillai which was given to the most eminent personnalities who helped in the government.this title was given to these two families.

      the word ettuveetil pillamar too was coined by C.V.Raman pillai and got popular in such a way that all, even historians use the same word.but they were not all pillais or anyone of them belonged to caste vellala pillai who now use the surname pillai.these eight houses were very powerful feudal lords and they held influencial posts .ramana madam and pallichal were ministers of attingal soverign of which ramana madom was a bhrahmin family.kulathoor and chempazhanthi were ezhava families.the arms trainer or kalarippayattu teacher of kazhakuttom was an ezhava man named kesava panikker.later he left from kazhakuttom with his diety whom he worshiped to another place called thozhuvancode where he established a temple now known as thozhvancode devi temple.its priests are even today members of his family and those families related to him and also they belonged to ezhava family.there is no bhrahmin priests in that temple.the word used in the old documents for mentioning these people are ettuveetil madampimar and not ettuveetil the document which mention the punishment of these madampis only 4 houses are stated.the reason is that all were not supporters for the eliminations of marthanda varma.because of the popularity of the word ettuveetil pillamar ,through the novel many people thought that all the pillais or nairs were against marthanda varma and it was a fight against nairs and the ruling family and in the fight nairs lost.

    9. the novel was so influencing that many not only historians but also the intellectuals of communist party too were misguided so much that in the books written by them , they mention this as the mass or people revolt against the ruling class or marthanda also made people to think that nairs were the controlling the state affairs and all the powerful land lords or atleast all the powerful lords were nairs who used to keep a sur name as pillai.this also created a new story that nairs of travncore were against marthanda varma and as ruler he crushed them.this was really not the actual case.nor the nairs were anywhere near to be called powerful for they were so few in number in kerala and travncore.only after the formation nss many castes which were not actually considered nairs were included and thus the number of nairs have increased.earlier these castes were having (still now) seperate caste names and considered nairs to be so much lower to them that even touching them was not allowed.but they used to appoint nairs for their house hold works,but still they were kept aside.the water touched by a nair was not considered good to drink by them (because of the untouchablity practised at the time) doing so was punishable with bhrasht meaning throwing out from their caste and denying all the rights,which included social out casting.even today many castes which joined with nss(nair service society) consider themselves higher than nairs and dont like to got together with so called nairs, eventhough many times they dont use their old sub caste title but generally considered as nairs by others.marriages are not encouraged amoung them or they dont prefer to make an aliance from the nairs.pillais of trivandrum also are part of the nss ,they too are considered as nairs generally.but they use the surname as pillai and not nair.the caste name is vellala pillai.marriages doesnot occur between these southern districts nairs castes itself is considered as two higher and other lower.generally speaking higher traditionally possess more lands.they generally distance away from the lower nairs.higher nairs generally doesnot support rss or hindu fundalmentalist organisations and movements.

      Additions and method of changing caste of characters,and alloting caste historical person done by C.V.Raman was later criticized by many others later.but generally that critics literature is not popular among the masses.any way many persons before and after C.V.Raman had done the same thing .alloting castes to 18 siddhars of tamilnadu is one such example ,done by those who transilated their works to malyalayam.this has happened in recent past ,from 70's to till date.many who reads these works only were easily fall to belive that they belonged to that caste or at time of these historic perosns caste system existed and was strong as in later years.even now some new papers knowingly or unknowingly put caste names to persons when they write a feature about historic events.examples can be seen even now in 2012.

    10. but snake worshiping exists in many parts of india and tamilnadu.the people who do this does have relation to nairs nor do they belong to same caste status.many adivasis and aborgins worship snakes ,so do many other people in have no relation a particular caste.moreover snake worship in kerala have some unique features.rituals ,songs,other performance arts associated with this worship was done some particular caste called pulluvar and not any part of the worships of snakes at temples or outside nairs had (and have) no some temples bhrahmins do the worship other rituals being done by other castes such as pulluvars,velans ,parayas etc.but this book had great influence and many persons tried hard to put forward a false theory, that nagas ruled india and the nagas of nagaland are related nairs.but nagas of nagaland are people or mangol orgin came there and settled during the 16th century after the fall of mongol empire in china.they dont even have snake worshiping culture. the reality is that there is no race called nagas who had their mainly worshipers of snake.snake worship has many explainations and is a common feature which can be seen in different parts of india.the snake worship is not every where done with same intention or kerala it is related rahu and ketu two imaginary planets included in the hindu solar said that rahu eats moon and when it happens solar eclipse avoid the evil effects of rahu people in kerala perform snake worship.only out of fear and to eliminate bad or difficult experiences in life that people do snake worship and because of any love and respect to snakes.

      that book stired confidence in nairs and helped to feel pride.the reasons are many.nairs were called as malayala sudras or the most downward caste in the varna system ,by the bhrahmins of kerala .ealier it was like a pride for the nairs as they were considered in side the varna system and some what part of hindus as they were allowed to enter the temple eventhough with some restrictions.these restriction include denial of ringing bell which was considered sacred,were never allowed to touch or come near the priest,nor were allowed to touch the offerings ,not allowed to enter the place were cooking of dishes meant for offerings.they were also had to move away when the priest come with things for worship.still it was considered as good as many other castes who forms now the majority of hindu religion now were not allowed even to enter the temple.also the bhrahims considered nairs as their servents who were obliged work for them sometimes even without wages.anything given to them were mere the great kindness of the bhrahmins.nair womens were the main maid servents doing house hold works in bhrahmin familes.

    11. the customs ,practices and even the houses were built according to these needs.those who were wealthy were able to built bigger houses.these big houses built by the nairs have some specialty.the steps leading to the second floor starts right from the veranda.this was to help those visitors or sambandakars.they dont have to enter the house ,they can easily go to the second floor and enter their favourite woman's room.these type of houses can be seen still in many parts of kerala.the namboothiri houses too have some peculiarity.that part where homas are done doesnot have second floor that was to avoid filling of smoke into the second floor.nairs where the main servants of the namboothiri families without them it was difficult for the bhrahmins to maintain their houses.namoothiris called nairs valyakkar(servents),adiyars(slaved like servants) ,sudras(lowest in varna system) etc.this was also considered by the nairs as a great thing they have pride in telling others that they were the adiyars of that or this mana(house of naboothiri).

      further the customs followed by the namboothiri families were so ridiculus and now it seems unbelivable and nowadays they too feel shame to tell all that.but it is the true past and nothing to gain from concealing and covering it.reformation movements which started in india has changed the most degraded society of india and also it has helped to better the lives of all ,also the indian independence too was the result of such movements.that all movements helped people to come together ,meet and discuss the problems in the talking was the base thing for the progress.but there were practices of untouchability.if a bhrahmin touches a nair it was taught he gets poluted and have to do penance and bathing .there were others such as ezhavar,thiyyar,pulayas etc whom if the namboothiri come closer beyond some limit then the namboothiri had to bath before he enter his house or temple.these namboothiris were commonly the priests of the temples belonging to the ruling family and other savarnas.there were worshiping systems and places for the ezhavars and thiyyas ,it was some sort of small temples ,but there all the poojas and worships were conducted by the persons from amoung them.pulayar and parayar were also had some form of worshiping .their main worshipping figure was goddess nowadays considered as kali(kali was a common name amoung them from very early period).they too perfomed poojas may be interesting to point out here that kali was the cheif goddess worshipped by the warriors of india.eventhough pulayar and parayar were considered to the most downward caste earlier,actually they had a golden past.the words pulayar and parayar were in use in early times of sangam age when these were the names associated people who were the main men nearer to the then kings.sangam literature depicts of pictures of possessions of kings accompanied by pulayar and parayar.also modern researches shows that many places in kerala had kingsor rulers belonging to this caste.even today in second decade of 21st century they are the ones who raise the pride of kerala by winning medals in athletics and other strenious sports.

    12. Even with highest social status the customs of bhrahmins of kerala was too pathetic. Only the first son of the family was allowed to marry.other sons have no right to marry.but they can mate with any women upto nairs. Not all but some kshatriya families of kerala were ready to allow their ladies to enter in relation with these namboothiris . the most infamous amoung these family was the cochin rulers or thrippunithura kovilakam.these practice created a lot of branches headed with seperated women. The namoothiris which entered in relation with these royal families were like in service or like given job.they were treated well money was given to them and to their familes. Ofcourse these money came from the state treasury and to the treasury from the working people.the income generating people were the farmers , traders and few industrialists.they made the majority of kerala population and consists mainly of so called avarnas which included ezhavar,pulayar and others.but they were not given recognition and rights. Ezhavars which forms the largest community of kerala is belived to be the Buddhist followers earlier.learning institutes were maintained by them which offered studying sanskrit and tamil languages. Medical treatment was one of their main occupation.anyone who is brilliant enough to learn sanskrit and medicine was allowed to learn in these institutes and can become a doctor. They were revered by the royal families and the namboothiris even during the period of untouchabilities. But the rules for untouchability was always relaxed when question of survival and workability comes.numerous stories and court case records shows these practices. Trade and factories were mainly run by the members belonged to this caste.

      the ambalavasi caste in kerala is that caste consists of people who were living doing jobs related to temples.this caste consists numerous subcastes.they doesn't were the owners or authorities of the temples but were doing the jobs such as cleaning,sweeping,singing,using drums and other instruments etc.they were not allowed to do the poojas which was done mainly by the bhrahmins.the bhrahmins many times were the authorities of these temples and they were the people who handle the income to the that time the temple income was mainly from the state treasury,given by the kings.this helped the owners or namboothiris to live well without necessary for doing any useful work.those persons living with jobs related to temples or ambalavasis were actually were dependentant on bharhmins as they can be denied job at any stage by these naturally they tried to keep the bhrahmins satisfied.they too practised the sambandam or were ready to entertain namboothiris with their women lot.bhrahmins entered into sambandan or a concubineship with these was not considered or accepted as marriage by the bhrahmin comunity.still the ambalavasis prefered to get a bhrahmin relation for their woman. this was way they have found to keep their job secure and income they prefer to have bhrahmin relative.if the namboothiri was a learned man and have income it was an added advantage for them.but generally if not all ,the members of ambalavasi castes are very poor and lagged behind in kerala.this was not because of any social backwardness but because of their way living superstitions.many tend to pursue their traditional occupation which have less income.their reluctance to modern education was also another reason.still they are not too poor to live as they can live by finding job and food from the temples even now.

      it should also be noted that the sambandam by namboothiris with kshathriyas and ambalavasis were different than with the nairs.the bhrahmins used to live in the houses of these kshathriyas and ambalavasi familes with whom they have started sambandam.

    13. but why the caste name nair got so famous and became known to all keralites despite kerala was divided in different countries ruled by many kings.why was the caste name nair be selected and claimed as all same from kshtriyas to bottom most caste of savarnas as nair.its one of the classic examples which shows how the mind set of people can be changed with education which was far distanced or have no corelation to the actual has been shown earlier that the word nair itself was not considered as a good word and it contained a bad meaning attached to it and how untiringly many have tried to give new meaning to it.the word was not mentioned in any official records such as stone inscriptions,land records ,orders from the king other reason for this may be it denoted a very small subcaste mainly employed as house hold servents.even no good literature in the medivial kerala used that word.but there were some reference to this caste indirectly in some literatures such as chambu set of literature which uses a mixture language of malayalam and sanskrit ,which was more popular amoung the bhrahmins of kerala.but from the second quarter of 19th century this word nair became popular slowly.this was because of the modern english education.some how when portughese came to kerala they some how got the idea that the soldiers of kerala were all nairs.may be they called the soldiers as the books and writings they wrote they used the word nair to denote the soldiers of kerala.they being came from a thick and last era of fedualism,where class division of society was strong ,they were easy pray to the misunderstanding that nairs where the soldiers or nairs alone where the soldiers of kerala.this misconcept was passed on to others and was continued by other europeans such as detch ,english and french.these other later europeans learned about kerala from the writings of portughese.they too absorbed the prejudice that nairs were all soldiers or the kerala soldiers were all nairs.this passed unchecked so mcuh that in almost all the writings the word nair was used to denote the army of kerala.when the english education was introduced in kerala in the second decade of 19th century ,this same misconcept was later taught to the kerala children in schools and thus the misconcept and prejudices were taught to the actual people itself.and above all even today many learned persons and even historians thinks that nairs are the only soldiers of kerala.But in reality many nairs were not soldiers or have nothing to do with warfare.

      it have been shown earlier that the army commander of marthanda varma was anantha pathmanabhan who was a channan or nadar and not a nair.he was also the commander of the personal body guard battalion of the consists of 36 warriors selected by the king personnaly.they were all many victorious battles conducted by marthanda varma the commander was ramayyan who was not a nair.his caste is not known clearly.he was born in tamilnadu and came into the serice of the travancore king at a very young age.for many years he was considered as a bhrahmin,but some have pointed out that he belonged to the maravar community of tamilnadu.what it is clear is that he is not a nair .kanakku ,pillai,chempaka raman etc were given as titles to the courters or to those who were in service or to those who have done service to the king. it was not given on community basis nor to a particular cant be competetant persons are to be taken to service and it cannot be found from a particular caste,not always from upper caste .

    14. in kerala the largest about one third population is ezhavars another caste.many ezhavars were in military service in olden days.not only they were soilders but also were commanders and officers in the armies.varnapalli family was the army chiefs and ministers of kayamkulam kingdom, so was ambanattu panikkar in service of ambalapuzha kingdom,ambantttu family of kollam was another ezhava family in service of kollam or desinganadu principality.Akathayyadi panicker was the cheif army commander of elaidatthu soroopam or kottarakkara kingdom.(Ref: Pathonmpatham noottandile keralam by Bhaskaranunni),Renakeerthy and dharmakeerthi chekavars - Commandor of Marthandavarma. (Ref: Travancore state manual.).ezhavars were largely in the service of cochin kingdom ,sankthan thampuran specialy appointed a ezhava military betallion in the guard of vadakkum nathan temple , commanded by a ezhava malabar area ezhavar were largely addressed by the name thiyyar and chekavar.chevam means military service in malayalam.those who were soldiers were known as thiyyars were so much in military service that ,it became another caste name of ezhavars.the word chaver pada or suicidal squad was actually derived from the word chekavar.whether it actually existed a question still not answered.

      in modern age too majority of the martial arts school of kalarippayattu or kalaris are run by ezhava caste.all the ancient kalaries still existed are owned and run by trivandrum where southern style is more popular its run by another caste ,nadars.nairs are not much in the kalari training or teaching.but the famous cvn kalari was started by c v narayan nair was a nair.but his teacher was a thiyya guru.kannur is famous for gymnastics and circus.the circus companies of kerala were founded and owned by was because they had the practise of learinging kalarippayattu which gives very importance to acrobatics again due to the martial history of that community.keeleri kuzhikannan was the first to start circus company in india.

      it is also a common misconcept that bhrahmins were the sole keepers of sanskrit language.but actually many books in sanskrit was written by bhuddhist and kerala during mediveal period sanskrit was actually taught by medical practitioners ,astrologers etc.these schools were mainly run by buddhist familes or ezhava familes.until the 20th century majority of these schools were run by them also it should be noted that many other castes were also used to run such schools.ayurvedic phisicians were ezhava and nadar familes ,also it was practised by some bhrahmin families and other castes which are now in obc list.

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